Uh Oh! Unified Logs in High Sierra (10.13) Show Plaintext Password for APFS Encrypted External Volumes via Disk Utility.app

UPDATE: PLEASE HELP ME TEST

UPATE TO THE UPDATE: Similar log entries are now found in another system log that is more persistent, see the article here.

UPDATE: This is still vulnerable on current versions of macOS 10.13.3 when encrypted an ALREADY EXISTING unencrypted APFS volume (versus, creating a NEW volume in original article). Thanks to @moelassus for pointing this out and to @howardnoakley for verifying. My verification test is below. Note that it gets stored in on-disk, collected logs (non-volatile logs).

Original Article Below:


I’ve been updating my course (Mac and iOS Forensics and Incident Response) to use new APFS disk images (APFS FTW!) and came across something that both incredibly useful from a forensics perspective but utterly horrifying from a security standpoint. Screenshot below of my course disk image.

It may not be noticeable at first (apart from the highlighting I’ve added of course), but the text “frogger13” is the password I used on a newly created APFS formatted FileVault Encrypted USB drive with the volume name “SEKRET”. (The new class images have a WarGames theme, hence the shout-outs to classic video games!)

The newfs_apfs command can take a passphrase as a parameter using the mostly undocumented “-S” flag. It is not documented in the man page.

However when run without parameters, it will show it.

I tried to recreate this scenario on my current system running 10.13.3 but was unable to do so therefore I believe this bug has been addressed. I was however able to recreate it on a 10.13 system (the image screenshot above is from a 10.13.1 system.) I have not tried it on a 10.13.2 system as I do not have one easily available. I will update this blog if someone can test it for me. UPDATE: Thanks to @ranvel (screenshot) and @applechinfo (video) for testing, it has also been fixed in 10.13.2. 

I haven’t done as much testing as I would like (I’m running up against a course update deadline after all!), but I did want to get this out immediate so it can be used for various investigations. I used the following steps to recreate this my 10.13 system.

Created a “clean” flash drive formatted “Mac OS Extended (Journaled)” using Disk Utility.app. (Quick testing shows other base formats should work similarly.) It is the Kingston DataTraveler drive labeled “Untitled” below.

Next I used the menu option “Erase” to create an Encrypted APFS volume on the drive, shown below named “SECRET_USB”. (In my testing it works the same if I go through the “Partition” options and do the same general process. The “Partition” method did error out, however it still appears to be an encrypted USB drive and the logs are the similar.)

Select “Erase” and wait until it has completed.

I used the following command to watch my unified logs in the Terminal while the process above was doing its thing:

log stream --info --predicate 'eventMessage contains "newfs_"'

…and there we have it, a plaintext password! (For better or worse.)

If anyone else does further testing I would love to know the results! Send me a message on Twitter or through my contact page!

iOS Imaging on the Cheap! - Part Deux! (for iOS 10 & 11)

We got some fantastic gifts of jailbreaks over the holiday so naturally I get very excited and dove right in so I can start getting back into research for iOS 10.3+ and iOS 11. The first step in this research is getting physical access to the device and capturing data. For some background please refer to my previous article on this: iOS Imaging on the Cheap!

This article will include the jailbreaks for iOS 10.3.3 using Meridian and iOS 11 using LiberiOS. My go to for all jailbreaks is The iPhone Wiki. Always, always, always make sure you go to the legitimate jailbreak host to ensure non-compromised jailbreak software. These two jailbreaks are semi-tethered jailbreaks meaning they revert the devices to non-jailbroken status when the devices are rebooted. Both of these jailbreaks are apps that run on the device thus you will be downloading an IPA file and installing them via Cydia Impactor. Quick instructions are the following, feel free to search for more detailed instructions - they are all over the place:

  • Download IPA
  • Plug in the device
  • Drag & Drop onto Cydia Impactor
  • Input Apple ID email & password (you may need to generate an app specific password if you have two-factor turned on).
  • Install will do its thing, depending on you developer status you may need to trust the app developer in Settings.

Let’s start with an iPad Mini on iOS 10.3.3 using the Meridian Jailbreak. The jailbreak app installation process was easy, it was actually exploiting the device which took some patience. As it states in the app, it may take up to 10 times. It took me three times the first time and six times in my second effort.

Next step is to SSH into the device. This was also a bit frustrating – part of it because I didn’t read the FAQ and part because the SSH software installed on the device is not very stable.

First off the SSH port used is on 2222, not the normal 22 so be aware of that if you use iproxy like myself – you need to use the command ‘iproxy 2222 4242 (or some other port number) instead of ‘iproxy 22 2222’.

Second is the SSH software used, dropbear. I had serious issues attempting to SSH into this device. Sometimes it worked, sometimes it refused the connection. Just keep trying is my solution – it will eventually work.

Finally, once you are in be sure to change the passwords for the ‘root’ and ‘mobile’ accounts by using the command ‘passwd root’ and ‘passwd mobile’ (see the screen shot below in the next section).

To image the device you can use a modified version of the command that I used in my previous blog article (assuming you are using iproxy  for USB tethering – modify as needed if not).

ssh –p 4242 [email protected] ‘/meridian/bins/tar –cf - /’ > ios_physical_logical_dump.tar

This jailbreak (as well as LiberiOS) are installing their own set of binaries which include some normal Unix utilities not installed on iOS. The tar command is in a different directory than what is normally used therefore it may not work to just use ‘tar’, instead point it to the one Meridian put on the device.

Another item you may have noticed that has changed with the command above is that I’m doing a ‘physical logical’ acquisition of the entire device using from the root directory or ‘/’. Previously I would capture the system partition as a full dd image using /dev/disk0s1s1, however something with these newer operating systems is limiting my access to it. Best guess at this point is that it’s an APFS thing ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ . Shown below doing a simple 'xxd' to view the partition is not permitted as root, this also goes for 'dd' and other utilities.

While this makes me a bit sad, I can still grab a logical copy of the files on the system and data partitions in one shot by using the command above. I did have some issues with the tar command exiting and eventually just had to assume I had all the files just on the size of the tar bundle so keep an eye on it.


Next up is an iPhone on iOS 11.1.2 using LiberiOS. Installation was just like Meridian – quick, easy, and flawfless.

This jailbreak was less quirky. As with the other jailbreak you should change the password for the 'root' and 'mobile' account immediately. This jailbreak provides the following instructions when first SSH'ed into. I highly reccomend running the export command shown below.

I was able to run the same command to procure a ‘physical logical’ acquisition of the device with a slight change because of where LiberiOS puts the tar utility. Once run you might get a few errors due to files being ignored or not permitted to be captured by 'tar'. This is normal.

ssh –p 4242 [email protected] ‘/jb/usr/bin/tar –cf - /’ > ios_physical_logical_dump.tar

Enjoy the new jailbreaks and may your forensic research and acquisitions be fruitful! I would also like to give a big THANK YOU to everyone who worked and contributed to these jailbreaks - they really do help with forensic research!

Script Update - Mac MRU Parser v1.5 - Added Volume Analysis Support and Other Stuff!

Get the script here!

Added volume analysis support for the following plists. These are not really MRUs but it could be damn useful to gather this info.

  • Sidebar List plist [10.12-] - /Users/<username>/Library/Preferences/com.apple.sidebarlists.plist
  • Favorite Volumes SFL2 - [10.13+] /Users/<username>/Library/Application Support/com.apple.sharedfilelist/com.apple.LSSharedFileList.FavoriteVolumes.sfl2
  • Finder Plist - /Users/<username>/Library/Preferences/com.apple.finder.plist
    • I was parsing FXRecentFolders Key, I've added FXDesktopVolumePositions Key
    • FXDesktopVolumePositions has a volume creation timestamp embedded into the "file" name for the volume (highlight in yellow below). This has been extracted and converted to human readable time (highlight in orange below).

Thanks to @4n68r for pointing out broke stuff (and for using the script!)

  • The ICNS Icon export function was also fixed.
  • Fixed support for some *.sfl2 files that were cranky and had no names.
  • Documentation/Spelling

Mount All the Things! – Mounting APFS and 4k Disk Images on macOS 10.13

Recently there has been some questions on the forums and Twitter as to how to mount forensic disk images that were captured from Mac system that implemented 4k block sizes. A few years ago, Mac systems started to use 4k blocks instead of 512 byte block sizes. This has caused some issues where you need to mount the image to do analysis without a major forensic suite. BlackBag wrote a good blog article on this last month however I hope to expand on it just a bit to include E01 files and FileVault encryption scenarios.

I will also detail how to mount the forensic disk images using newer APFS file system so analysts can start to do their thing while all the forensic tools catch up! APFS disk images already appear to use 4k block sizes as the default, at least on all my test systems. If you see otherwise, please let me know!

This article will try to provide some options to mount these images, however it cannot solve all the issues or combinations of disks/block sizes/host operating systems – it seems that you will have to upgrade to 10.13 at some point to solve many of these problems.

HFS+ 4k and FileVault Images

The following steps will bring you from a full HFS+ FileVault 4k disk image in EWF format to a mounted image using macOS 10.13. (If you have a raw (non-EWF) image, you can bypass steps 1 and 3.)

  1. $ sudo mkdir /Volumes/4k_image/

  2. $ sudo mkdir /Volumes/4k_mounted/

  3. $ sudo xmount --in ewf --out dmg 4k.E01 /Volumes/4k_image/

  4. $ hdiutil attach –nomount –blocksize 4096 /Volumes/4k_image/4k.dmg

  5. [Input Password in Prompt Window]

  6. $ diskutil cs list

  7. $ sudo mount_hfs –o rdonly,noexec,noowners /dev/disk# /Volumes/4k_mounted/

1. Create a mount point to put the xmount converted DMG image (converted from EWF format). [sudo is required when dealing with /Volumes/ since 10.12]

2. Create another mount point to put the mounted image on. This will act as the root volume for the mounted image.

3. Using xmount (sudo required) to convert from EWF (--in) to DMG (--out) format. DMG is selected here since it is very Mac friendly. Provide the E01 image (use E?? if using segments) and the converted image mount point created in Step 1. This could take a few seconds if the disk image is large. Theoretically you can use another mounting utility, I've tried ewfmount on 10.13 and ran into errors that I'm still investigating. Having trouble installing Xmount? Does it say OS X Fuse is not installed? Look in the comments section for a fix.

4. Using hdiutil, attach (but don’t yet mount) the DMG file created in Step 3. Using the hidden argument –blocksize we can specify 4096 (‘4k’ can also be used here). It is worth noting here that while hidden in 10.13 this option does not appear to exist in 10.12 versions of this utility. It is also is not detailed in the hdiutil man page. Gotta love hidden functionality! This will output a bunch of /dev/disk* options, however none of these are the ones you need thanks to CoreStorage.

5. If the image is FileVault encrypted a password window will appear, please put the password for the disk in here so it can be unlocked.

  • If you want to do this all via the command line (you rock!) you can pass –stdinpass to the hdiutil command in Step 4 where it will prompt you for the password.
  • You will then need to use ‘diskutil cs unlockVolume <LogicalVolumeGUID> ‘ after determining the Logical Volume GUID to use by using ‘diskutil cs list’. (Similar to Step 6) Note the Lock Status highlighted in the screenshots below.

6. Next use ‘diskutil cs list’ to determine which disk to using in Step 7. Determine which volume you will be performing analysis on, in the screenshot above it is /dev/disk6.  

7. Using mount_hfs (with sudo again) we can mount /dev/disk6 (the ‘#’ is just a variable used above, yours may be a different number) using a variety of options (you can choose your own, however I normally use read only, ignore ownership, and limit binary execution options. Also provide it the second mount point you created in Step 2.

If it all works out, congrats you now have a mounted image!

APFS Images

A similar approach can be used for new APFS disk images. Anyone who has tried to capture their disk images in 10.13 might have had a problem doing so due to System Integrity Protection (SIP). SIP is now protecting /dev and will likely make forensic acquisition and analysis more difficult if you happen to interact with /dev often. Easy fix – disable SIP. While not technically good for security purposes, it can be a general pain in the posterior to have on. To disable it, reboot into Recovery mode, open the Terminal and type ‘csrutil disable’ and restart the system. Yes, you can re-enable it later with ‘csrutil enable’.

  1. $ sudo mkdir /Volumes/apfs_image/
  2. $ sudo mkdir /Volumes/apfs_mounted/
  3. $ sudo xmount --in ewf --out dmg apfs.E01 /Volumes/apfs_image/
  4. $ hdiutil attach –nomount /Volumes/apfs_image/apfs.dmg
  5. $ diskutil ap list
  6. $ diskutil ap unlockVolume <Disk GUID> –nomount
  7. $ sudo mount_apfs –o rdonly,noexec,noowners /dev/disk# /Volumes/apfs_mounted/

Because it is so similar to the process above, my description of each step here will be limited. In Step 4 we do not need to use –blocksize as it just happens to work without it. In Step 5, instead of ‘diskutil cs list’ we use ‘diskutil ap list’ – APFS does not use CoreStorage (cs) and instead uses APFS containerization (ap). The ‘ap’ will also be used in Step 6. Step 7 uses mount_apfs instead of mount_hfs for obvious reasons and would be used on /dev/disk6s1 as shown in the example screenshot below.

References and Thank You’s

https://www.blackbagtech.com/blog/2017/10/05/apple-file-system-apfs-mac-forensic-imaging-analysis/

A big thanks to Ed and a “little birdy” for sanity checks and help!